Top Six Programming
Languages in Europe

  • Top Six Programming
    Languages in Europe
In today's rapidly evolving digital landscape, software development has become the backbone of countless industries. Europe, known for its thriving tech scene, has become a home to numerous innovative companies and startups, where the demand for skilled developers is on the rise.
In this article, we will explore the top 6 development languages that are sought-after across the European market. Whether you're a developer looking to enhance your skills or a business owner seeking the right talent, this article will provide valuable insights into the European software development landscape.

6. PHP

  • 6. PHP
PHP is a popular programming language used in web development to create programs that handle client requests. Despite ranking lower than its competitors, many websites, such as Facebook or Wikipedia, are built using PHP. According to statistics, the backend of most websites on the Internet is written in PHP, making the language relevant and popular for a long time to come. Although other technologies are often used for new services, PHP is staying on track and will continue to be used.
The PHP language allows working with databases and creating programs that handle tasks like sending emails from websites. It is widely used in web development for creating dynamic and interactive websites, as well as server-side scripting to process data and interact with databases. Knowledge of PHP can be a starting point for a developer's career, and job opportunities can be found with little experience.

5. C++

  • 5. C++
C++ is a powerful general-purpose programming language that is often used as a system language. It supports not only object-oriented programming but also other programming paradigms. This language can interact with low-level functions and work directly with the system, which is important, for example, for platform optimization or graphics calculations. For instance, C++ is used in the graphics editor Adobe Photoshop.
The application of C++ is almost limitless, ranging from developing operating systems to game engines. The language is needed wherever complex computations, fast performance, and good optimization are required. This includes high-load systems, operating systems, games, firmware for microcomputers, engines, and even automobile software.
However, C++ is a fairly complex language with many intricacies that can be challenging for beginners, such as manual memory management, which greatly contributes to the efficiency of C++ code.
About a year ago, in 2022, C++ surpassed Java in the TIOBE programming language ranking and has retained its position to this day. It's safe to say that the language is experiencing a new lease of its life. Nowadays, C++ programmers are involved in the development of AI, cryptocurrencies, search and banking systems, and smart technology. These industries represent the future, and C++ remains one of the best-suited languages for them. Therefore, learning the language is always relevant and promising.
C++ is not only used by programmers; mathematicians also apply numerical methods implementations in this language for typical tasks such as solving systems of algebraic equations, optimization, extrapolation, or approximation. However, they do not always use C++, as there are specialized languages like MATLAB (which, by the way, ranks 12th in the TIOBE index, although it is not used for application software).

4. C#

  • 4. C#
C# is one of the rapidly developing and in-demand general-purpose programming languages. It was developed by Microsoft for creating applications for Windows.
Code written in C# runs on the .NET platform rather than on a machine level, which makes the language slower than C++, but the code itself simpler. The syntax is similar to C++, but developers need to think about fewer complex aspects, for example, such as automatic garbage collection like in C#. There is no need to constantly manage memory manually.
C# remains in high demand and continues to be a stable and reliable programming language in the tech industry. Its versatility makes it ideal for a wide array of applications, from developing desktop software and web services to creating cutting-edge games and enterprise-level solutions. With a strong ecosystem, regular updates, and an ever-growing community, C# solidifies its position as a top choice for software development seeking a powerful and future-proof language to tackle modern challenges and build innovative solutions.

3. Java

  • 3. Java
With its cross-platform capabilities, JavaScript empowers programmers to build applications that can be deployed effortlessly on various operating systems, like macOS, Windows, and Linux, eliminating the need for platform-specific code. It is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language, and this programming paradigm is well-suited for creating complex systems. Systems are built from objects, like building blocks, and the code can be reused. Java is also an excellent starting point for beginner programmers as the principles of OOP will be useful, for example, when working with Python and C++.
Java is primarily employed for web development on the server-side, enabling the creation of robust and scalable websites and services, and for developing applications for Android. However, in the case of Android, it is gradually yielding its position to Kotlin, the language which is based on Java and compatible with it but is a bit newer.
It is also common for developing high-load systems, making it highly used in the fintech industry and large companies for creating corporate software. Additionally, Java is utilized for writing video games; for instance, the famous game Minecraft is written in this language.
While desktop video games are less commonly written in Java, it is often used for mobile games, like God of War: Betrayal. Moreover, Java is frequently employed in cloud application development.
Despite Java's slight decline in the TIOBE programming language ranking almost every year, it does not mean that the language will disappear or become obsolete — there is an enormous number of programs written in Java worldwide. As per Oracle, 15 billion devices run Java. Many popular frameworks, such as Spring and JSP, use Java for e-commerce software development, educational platforms, and government projects. Major companies, such as Uber, Airbnb, Spotify, and Amazon, also utilize this language. Java is also actively applied in the fields of Big Data and scientific programming.
The Java ecosystem is constantly evolving, with developers presenting new versions with interesting and useful features every six months. By the way, there is a current Java opening for one of our clients — check it out!

2. JavaScript

  • 2. JavaScript
JavaScript is a versatile programming language that is suited for both client-side and server-side development. This language enhances interactivity on the websites, such as games, responsive button clicks, data input forms, dynamic styles, and animations.
In the world of programming, this language is almost the sole choice when it comes to the frontend. The trick is that browsers understand and execute code only in JavaScript. Therefore, JavaScript remains relevant for a long time.

Even though there are a few other languages for frontend, all of them still change the code into JavaScript to run on the server-side.
JavaScript is a versatile and ubiquitous programming language, with applications not only limited to the frontend of websites but also extending to the backend. It plays a crucial role in creating interactive and dynamic user interfaces on the client-side, while on the server-side, platforms like Node.js leverage JavaScript's power to handle complex data processing, real-time communication, and building scalable web applications. Embracing JavaScript's full-stack potential empowers developers to craft seamless and feature-rich web experiences across the entire technology stack.
Despite being primarily known for web development, JavaScript's capabilities span far beyond this realm. Take mobile applications development! You can develop, for instance, desktop applications for packages like Microsoft and OpenOffice using the React Native framework. While such a platform as The Electron helps write desktop applications using web technologies, such as JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. It is also often used instead of host languages because the applications become cross-platform, and working with JS is easier than with system languages.
According to GitHub, JavaScript has consistently remained one of the most popular programming languages for over 8 years. When considering the overall number of created programs, JavaScript has firmly maintained its position at the top.

1. Python

  • 1. Python
Python has been the top programming language in popularity for the third year in a row. Since 2022, it has also topped the PYPL ranking. The reason is pretty obvious — Python is simply a convenient and versatile language. It is an interpreted language, allowing code to run quickly and consistently on any operating system without any surprises. Python is used in developing application software, website servers, analytics, testing, automation, machine learning, and Big Data processing. The language is simple, concise, and intuitively understandable. It is geared toward solving practical problems and has many useful frameworks.

Python appeared relatively recently in 1991, and the modern version of Python 3 was released only in 2008. Despite its relatively young age, the language has experienced a boom in recent years, surpassing C, Java, C++, and C# in popularity. Python is present in almost all areas of development, including web development, mobile app creation, and games. It is also the primary language for automated testing, creating mathematical models and neural networks, analytics, and machine learning. Python is used by both startups and companies working on large projects. For example, Google applies Python as a component of its search engine, the music service Spotify uses it for big data analytics, and NASA uses Python in scientific computations.
In conclusion, the European software development market is teeming with opportunities, but staying ahead requires the right tools and expertise. By understanding the demand for these languages, developers can acquire the right skills to stay competitive in the job market, while businesses can make informed decisions when hiring talent.
At GitMax, we are committed to helping our clients navigate the ever-changing software development landscape. Whether you are a talent seeking career growth or a business looking to build a high-performing development team, GitMax deeply understands the European market, has experience, and provides resources to help you achieve your goals.
Natalie Peter
Writer / Tech Enthusiast / Wordsmith